I c^o^c^c^c^c^o^c^c^c^c^c^c^o^ojoc^oojo I UNITED STATES for tub USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE TUITION.ft 6 ' KEW HAVEN-S. BABCOCK. 1833. c^o^c^c^c^c^c^o^c^-o^c^oojoo^oc^oojoc^oc^J

UNITED STATES’ TABLE BOOK, WITH A SHORT AND EASY EXPLANATION OF THB PRINCIPAL RULES, &c. FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE TUITION. Delightful task! to teach the youthful mind. And- >nidoth the path to science. " ■ NEW-HAVEN—S. BABCOCK. Sidney’s rmsi. 1833.

pp.C i

DIRECTIONS FOR WRITING, HOLDING THE PEN, The pupil, when beginning to write, should sit perfectly easy, neither awkwardly upright nor stooping ungracefully. The paper should lie parallel to the edge of the desk or table, and the pupil sit a little to the left side of it in order to slope his writing properly. The pen should be held between the thumb and the fore and middle fingers, nearly an inch from the point. The thumb should be placed about three quarters of an inch higher than the end of the fore finger, and bent outwards, so that in making a long full stroke, the nail ought to-touch the barrel of the pen. The hand should rest entirely on the end of the little finger, and the top of the pen point directly to the shoulder. The third finger may be laid upon the little one, and drawn in towards the palm of the hand.

4 NUMERATION TABLE. KAg § s s MA A a Aa cn 2 ° 2. s £ tn 2 2 JO «} 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1' 1 One Twenty-one Three hundred twenty-one 4 thousand 321 54 thousand 321 654 thousand 321 7 millions 654 tbous. 321 87 millions 654 thous. 321 987 millions 654 thous. 321 The above Table is comprised in the following. Units Tens Hundreds Thousands - - - 1 i . X. of Thousands - - V C. of Thousands - - co ) h ® Millions - - - - <- 1 § X. of Millions - - - co C. of Millions - - - cn ) g « 5 8 9 8 7 7 7 3 ^5 3 2 3 2 3 2 [ I GO )

5 TABLE of Addition and Subtraction. 38 J f 2| 3| 4f 5| 6| 7| 8| 9^ 1| 2| 3| 4| 5] 6] 7| 8| 9| 10 2| 3i 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9|10|ll 3[ 4| 5| 6| 7| 8r9|10;il|12 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9|10]fl] 12|13 5| 6| 7| 8( 9|1O|T1|12|13|14 6| 7]_8j 9|10|l 1|12|13|14| 15 7| 8| 9|10[ll|12| 13|f4|15jl6 8f 9| 10| 11|12| 13| 14115| 16] 17 9|10|ll|12|13|14il5|'16|17|18 38 SC "ii 942 SC 32 542 242 "'12 ^<43549 ca .a/j m cw oto cyo og oj? m < y op ^2 $Jg $42 MOTE.—To use this table for addition, lake either of the two figures you have to add on the left hand, and underneath, the other, in aline opposite the first, is the sum of both. For subtraction, take the figure you have to subtract on the left, and opposite to it find the number you are to subtract from it; in aline above that number you will find the remainder at the lop.

6 MULTIPLICATION TABLE. 1 2 3 88 A 38 4 88 75 38 „ 38 c 38 O 1 7 38 — » e 38 _ ° 88 9 10 11 1 12 38 2| 3| 4| 5|' 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 111 12 g 4| -6| 8|10|12|14|16| 18| 20] 22| 24 g 6| 9|T2]T5| 18|21|24 27| 30| 33| 36 | 8112116120134128J321-36j 401 441 48 I 10|I5|20|25|30|35|40| 45| 50| 55| 60 | T2|18[24|30[36|42|48| 54| 60| 66| 72 g 14|21|28|35|42|49|56| 63[ 70|’77| 84 g' 16|24|32|40|48|56|64| 72| 80| 88| “96 g 18|27|36|45|54|63|72| 811 90| 99|108 g. 20|30|40|50|60|70|80| 90|100|110|120 g 22|33|44|55|66|77|88[ 99|110|121|132 I 24|36|48|60|72|84|96|108|120|132|144 f NOTE.—In order to commit the above table perfectly to memory, the pupil is requested, after having obtained it in the usual way, to begin at 12 times 12 and repeat it over to the beginning ; as the ready performance of Multiplication, and all the following rules, entirely depends upon having a perfect knowledge of this table.

7 Farthing-, Pence, and Shilling, Tables. d. d. 5. d. s. I. s. 4 are 1 12 are 1 0 20 are 1 0 6 — 14 13 — 1 1 30 — 1 10 8- 2- 14 — 1 2 40 — 2 0 10 — 24 15 — 1 3 50 — 2 10 12 — 3 16 — 1 4 60 — 3 0 14 -i ■ — 34 17 - 1 5 70 — 3 10 16 — 4 18 — 1 6 80 — 4 0 18 — 44 19 — 1 7 90 — 4 10 20 5 20 — 1 8 100 — 5 0 22 —— 54 30 — 2 6 110 — 5 10 24 —— 6 40 — 3 4 120 — 6 0 26 — 64 50 — 4 2 130 — 6 10 28 — 7 60 — 5 0 140 — 7 0 30 —— 74 70 — 5 10 150 — 7 10 32 — 8 80 — 6 8 160 — 8 0 34 ".1i ■84 90 — 7 6 170 — 8 10 36 — 9 100 — 8 4 180 — 9 0 38 — 94 110 — 9 2 190 — 9 10 40 a— 10 120 — 10 0 200 — 10 0 44 ' 1 1 11 130 — 10 10 300 — 15 0

« FEDERAL MONEY. 10 Mills (m.) make - 1 Cent, ct. 10 Cents ----- 1 Dime, D. 10 Dimes, or 100 Cents, 1 Dollar, D. or g 10 Dollars - - - - 1 Eagle, /k ENGLISH MONEY. 4 Farthings (yr.) make 1 Penny d. 12 Pence - - - - 1 Shilling, ar. 20 Shillings - - - 1 Pound, Z. or £. TROY WEIGHT. 24 Grains (gr.) make 1 Pennyweight, rfwA 20 Pennyweights - 1 Ounce, oz. 12 Ounces - - - - 1 Pound, lb. NOTE.—By this weight are weighed jewels, gold, silver, and liquors. AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT, 16 Drams (dr.) make 1 Ounce, oz. 16 Ounces - 1 Pound, lb.

9 28 Pounds make - 1 Quarter, qr. 4 Quarters - - - 1 Hundred weight, cwt. 20 Hundred weight 1 Ton, T. FEDERAL WEIGHT. 25 Pounds make - 1 Quarter, qr. 50 ---------- - - 2 Quarters, qrs. 75 ---------- - - -3 Quarters, qrs. 100 ------- — - - 1 Hundred, C. ' NOTE.—By these weights are weighed such commodities as are coarse and subject to waste; and all metals, except gold and silver. One pound Avoirdupois is equal to 14os. llpwt. and 15| grs. Troy. APOTHECARIES’ WEIGHT. 20 Grains (gr.) make 1 Scruple, 3 3 Scruples - - - 1 Dram, 3 8 Drams - - - 1 Ounce, § 12 Ounces - - - 1 Pound, lb NOTE.—Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines; but they buy and sell their Drugs by Avoirdupois weight. 2

10 CLOTH MEASURE. 4 Nails (na.) make 1 Quarter, qr. 4 Quarters - - - 1 Yard, yd. 3 Quarters - - - 1 Ell Flemish, E.Fl. 5 Quarters -. - 1 Ell English, E.E. 6 Quarters - - - 1 Ell French, E.F. LONG MEASURE. 3 Barley Corns make 1 Inch, in. 12 Inches - - - 1 Foot, ft. 3 Feet - - - - 1 Yard, yd. 51 Yards, or 16f Feet 1 Pole, or Perch, P, 40 Poles - - - - 1 Furlong, fur. 8 Furlongs - - 1 Mile, M. 3 Miles - - - - 1 League, L. 60 Geographical, or? . D , 69i Statute Miles, $ 1 ae8‘ 360 Degrees, the WorldFs Circumference. NOTE.—In this measure length only is considered. LAND, OR SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square Inches make 1 Square Foot, ft. 9 Feet ----- 1 Yard, yd.

11 $2? Xar?S’ 01 ? 1 Pole, or Perch, P. 272| Feet, - - - $ 40 Poles, or Perches, 1 Rood, R* 4 Roods - - - 1 Acre, ANOTE.—This measure respects length and breadth. WINE MEASURE. 2 Pints make 1 Quart, qt. 4 Quarts - - - 1 Gallon, 42 Gallons - - - 1 Tierce, P 63 Gallons - - - 1 Hogshead, hhd. 84 Gallons - - - 1 Puncheon, . P. 2 Hogsheads - - 1 Pipe, or Butt, pi.^bt. 2 Pipes - - - - 1 Tun, T. NOTE,—The wine gallon contains 231 cubic inches. ALE AND BEER MEASURE. 2 Pints (pt.} make 1 Quart, qt. 4 Quarts - - - 1 Gallon, gal. 8 Gallons - - - 1 Firkin of Ale. 9 Gallons - - - 1 Firkin of Beer. 54 Gallons - - - 1 Hogshead of Beer. 3 Barrels - - 1 Butt, bt. NOTE.—The ale gallon contains 282 cubic inches.

12 DRY MEASURE. 2 Pints {pt.) make 1 Quart, qt. 2 Quarts - - - 1 Pottle, p. 2 Pottles - - - 1 Gallon, gal. 2 Gallons - - - 1 Peck, pe. 4 Pecks - - - 1 Bushel, bu. 8 Bushels - - - 1 Quarter, qr. 36 Bushels - - - 1 Chaldron of Coals. NOTE.—The gallon dry measure contains 268 4-5ths cubic inches. TIME. 60 Seconds (sec.) make 1 Minute, min. 60 Minutes - - - 1 Hour, H. 24 Hours - - - - 1 Day, D. 7 Days - - - - 1 Week, W. 4 Weeks - - - 1 Month, M. 365 Days - - - 1 Year, K NOTE. 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 57 seconds make a solar year, according to the most exact observation.

13 The number of days in.each month is thusfound. The fourth, eleventh, ninth, and sixth, Have thirty days to each affixed, All the rest have thirty-one, Except the second month alone,_______ Which has but twenty-eight in fine, ’Till leap year gives it twenty-nine. MOTION. 60 Seconds (") make 1 Prime Minute, 60 Minutes, or Miles, 1 Degree, 30 Degrees - - - 1 Sign, s. 12 Signs, or 360 De- 1 Great Circle of the grees sphere, Called the Zodiac, in which are marked the twelve Signs. THE SUN ENTERS, Aries T March 22 Libra =c= September23 Taurus b April 20 Scorpio ■fit October 22 Gemini n May .21 Sagittarius / November 22 Cancer June 22 Capricorn vs December 22 Leo a July 23 Aquarius January 20 Virgo August 23 Pisces February 19 The Zodiac is a circle which cuts the Equator ob-» liquely, and in which the above twelve signs are repre-

14 MISCELLANEOUS. rented ; in the middle of which is supposed another circle, called the Ecliptic, from which the sun never deviates in his annual course,’ and in which he advances 30 degrees each month. 220Z6. Make a barrel of Beef or Pork. 196Z&. ------ ------ Flour. 100Z&. ------ ------ Gun Powder. 120ZZ>. ------ seam of Glass. 16Z&. ------ stone of Feathers. ------ quintal of Fish. Ulb. ------ stone of Shot. 19i cwt. make a fodder of Lead. 6 Feet —;— a Fathom. 4 Inches make a Hand. 12 Articles------ a Dozen. 5 Dozen —- a roll of Parchment. 12 ------ ------ a small Gross. 12 Gross, or 144 doz. make a great Gross. 24 Sheets make a quire of Paper. 20 Quires ------ a ream of Paper. 2 Reams -■ a bundle of Paper.

15 CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE. 1728 Inches make 1 Foot, ft. 27 Feet.............................. 1 Yard, yd. 40 Feet of round Timber, or ) 1 Ton or load, 50 Feet of hewn Timber $ marked T. 128 Solid Feet - - - 1 Cord of Wood. NOTE.—8 feet in length, 4 in breadth, 4 in height, making 128 solid feet, contain a cord of wood. This measure respects length, breadth, and thickness. ■ ...-ca+oB.... TABLE OF FRENCH MONEY. 20 Sols make 1 Livre. 6 Livres - - 1 Crown. 4 Crowns - - 1 Louisd’or, or Fr. Guinea. DUTCH MONEY. 16 Pennings make 1 Stiver. 20 Stivers - - - - 1 Guilder. SPANISH MONEY. 34 Maravedies make 1 Rial. 8 Rials ------ 1 Piastre.

16 PRACTICE. d. Of a Shilling. s.) Of a Ton. Cwt. T. 6 is 1 5 10 i 4 — _ * * ” i 5............................. i 3 i 4 | 2 — • • • * X 6 2| li 2 8 2 1 • - - - • JL 1 2 1 2 7 s Farthings - - 1_ 16 Of a hundred Weight. 1 Half-Penny - 24 lb. 1 Farthing - - Of a Pound. 1 4 8 56 is 2 28.............................i s. d. £ 16............................. 7 10 /is 2 a 14............................. 1 6 8........................ 2 3 8...........................t’t 5 • • • • • 1 T 7 ----- t¥ 4 — a * « w 1 5 ----- 2 6 - - - - - i Of a Quarter cwt. 2 • • • • • tV lb. 1 8........................ 1 Ta 14 is 5 1 4----- 1 5 7............................. I 1 3 - - - - - iV 4.............................4

17 INTEREST. Even parts of a year. Even parts of a Month. Months. Year. Days. Month. 6 is J 15* - - - - g 4 - - - - f 10 - - - - | 3 .... J 6 - - - - < 2 - --. x 5 - | ' T 2 3 - - - - y0 ***H>@>44*» The rales at which all foreign coins and currencies are estimated at the Custom Houses of the United States. Dolls. Cts. Each pound sterling of Great Britan at 4 44 Each pound sterling of Ireland - - 4 10 Each livre tournois of France - - - - 18£ Each florin or guilder of the Netherlands 40 Each mark banco of Hamburg - - - - 331 Each Danish, Spanish, and Swedish dol. 1 00 Each rial plate of Spain................................. lb Each rial of vellon of Spain, - - - - 5 Each milree of Portugal - - - - 1 24 Each tale of China - - - - - 148 Each pagoda of India ----- 1 84 Each rupee of Bengal - - - - - - 50

18 A short and easy explanation of the principal Rules of Arithmetic in Question and Answer. Q. What is Arithmetic ? A. Arithmetic is the art of computing by numbers. Q. Which are its principal rules ? A. These five, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. Q. What is the use of Numeration ? A. Numeration teaches to read and write numbers by their true value. Q. What is the use of Addition ? A. Addition teaches to collect numbers into one total sum. Q. How many kinds of Addition are there ? A. Two, Simple and Compound. Q. What is Simple Addition ? A. Simple Addition teaches to collect numbers of the same denomination into one total sum. Q. What is Compound Addition? A. Compound Addition teaches to collect numbers of different denominations into one sum.

19 Q. What is Simple Subtraction? It teaches to take a less number from a greater of the same name, and thereby shows the difference. Q. What is Compound Subtraction ? A. It teaches to find the difference between numbers of divers denominations. Q. What is Multiplication. JI. It is a short and easy way of adding numbers of the same name. Q. Which are the principal terms used in this rule? Ji. These three, viz. the Multiplicand or sum to be multiplied, the Multiplier or number by which you multiply, the Productor number, produced by multiplying the other two. Q. What is Compound Multiplication? JI. It is the multiplying numbers of different names by a simple figure or figures, whose product shall be equal to a proposed number. What is Division. JI. It teaches to find how often one number is contained in another of the same name.

20 Q. How are its terms distinguished r The number given to be divided, is called the dividend. The number to be divided by, is called the divisor. The number of times the divisor is contained in the dividend, is called the quotient. The remainder, if there be any, will be less than the divisor. Q. What is the use of Compound Division ? JI. It teaches to find how often one number is contained in another of different denominations. Q. What is reduction ? JL Reduction is the changing or reducing numbers from one denomination to another, without altering their value. Q. Which rules are used in reduction ? Multiplication and Division. Q. When is Multiplication, used ? Ji. When great names are to be brought into small, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, fyc. Q. When is Division used ? JI. When small names are to be brought into great, as shillings into pounds, fyc.

21 • Q. What is the Rule of Three £ Ji. It teaches by three numbers, which are always given in the question, to find a fourth. Q. How is the Rule generally divided ? Ji. Into Direct and Inverse Proportion. What is Direct Proportion ? JI. Direct Proportion is when more requires more, or less requires less. As it will require more men to perform more work, or fewer men for less work in the same time. Q. What is Inverse Proportion ? JI. Inverse Proportion is when more requires less, or less requires more. As it will require more men to perform the same work in less time, or fewer men in more time. 0. What is Compound Proportion ? A. Compound Proportion is so called because it teaches to solve such questions as require two or more statings by the Single Rule of T^iree. Is Proportion a very useful Rule ? JL Yes, both in Arithmetic and Mathematics, and therefore it has been called the Golden Rule.

22 Q. What is Practice ? A. It is a contraction of the Rule of Three Direct, when the first term happens to be an unit, or one, and has its name from its frequent use in business. Q. What is interest? A. It is a compensation made by the bor- rower of any sum of money to the lender, according to a certain rate per cent. How do you distinguish the different terms used in this rule ? A. The money lent is called Principal.— The sum per cent, agreed on, is called Rate: The Principal and Interest added together are called Amount. Q. Wherein do Simple and Compound Interest differ ? A. In Simple Interest we pay only for the use of .the Principal; in Compound we pay for the Interest as~ well as the Principal, as soon as it becomes due.

23 NUMERICAL TABLE, BY THE NUMERAL LETTERS. I. One IL Two III. Three IV. or IIII. Four V. Five VI. Six VII. Seven VIII. Eight IX. Nine X. Ten XL Eleven XII. Twelve XIII. Thirteen XIV. Fourteen XV. Fifteen XVI. Sixteen XVII. Seventeen XVIII. Eighteen XIX. Nineteen XX. Twenty XXX. Thirty XL. Forty L. Fifty LX. Sixty LXX. Seventy LXXX. Eighty XC. Ninety C. One Hundred CC. Two Hundred CCC. Three Hundred D. Five Hundred DC. Six Hundred DCCC. Eight Hun. DCCCC.. Nine Hun. M. One Thousand MDCCCXXXIII.One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-three.

24 USEFUL ABBREVIATIONS. A. B. Bachelor of Arts A. D. The year of our Lord A. M. Master of Arts A. P. Prof essor of Astronomy A. M. Before Noon, B. D. Bachelor of Divinity Cwt. Hundred weight Col. Colonel Capt. Captain Cr. Credit Dr. Doctor or Debtor D. D. Doc. of Divinity Do. or Ditto The same F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal Society G. R. George the King i. e. That is lb. or Ibid. The same i I. H. S. Jesus the Savior of men L. D. Dr. of Laws L. L. D. Doctor of the Canon Civil Law L. S. Place of the Seal M.D. Dr. of Physic M.S. Manuscript 'M.S. S. Manuscripts । Messrs. Gentlemen Mr. Master 'Mrs. Mistress N. B. Take Notice : N. S.New Style 0. S. Old Style P. S. Postcript P. M. After Noon ss. To Witt, Namely viz. That is to say U. S. A. United States of America.

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