A Christian Guide to Body Stewardship, Diet and Exercise

Glossary of Terms 234 Trail-running shoes: Type of shoe designed for off-road runs that may include the presence of rocks, mud, roots and/or other obstacles. Trans fat: Type of fat that is created when liquid oils are changed into solid fats, like shortening and some margarines. This is done to make food last longer without going bad. Trans fat are found in crackers, cookies, and snack foods. Trans fat are believed to raise LDL (bad) cholesterol and lower HDL (good) cholesterol. Treadmill tempo run: New type of pace / tempo training aimed at targeting a desired run time for a specific race distance (e.g., 1-0-mile). Triglycerides: Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. High levels of triglycerides may increase the risk of coronary artery heart disease, especially in women. Undulating (non-linear) periodization: An alternative method that involves large fluctuations in load and volume assignments. Valsalva maneuver: Particular method of breathing and bracing that increases intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) thereby providing additional support to the spine. Variation: Periodic rotation of exercises in order to prevent training plateaus and/or overtraining. Vegan: A person who does not eat or use animal products. Vegetarian: A person who does not eat meat, and sometimes other animal products. Venous return: Rate of blood flow back to the heart. Vigorous-intensity aerobic activity: Physical activity performed at a high level of effort, resulting in a substantially higher heart rate and rapid breathing. Visceral fat: Unseen fat stored around your organs and is linked to several metabolic disorders and diseases. Vitamins: Various organic substances, either found in food or produced by the body, that are essential in minute quantities and act as coenzymes/precursors of coenzymes in the regulation of certain metabolic processes. Vitamins do not provide energy or serve as building units. VO 2 max: Maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense or maximal exercise. It is measured as milliliters of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight (ml/kg/min). Volume: The total amount of weight lifted in a training session. Waist circumference: Measurement taken around the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus used as a screen for certain weight-related health risks. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR): An indicator of health risk that is calculated by dividing the waist measurement by the hip measurement. Warm-up: Gradual increase in exercise intensity intended to prepare the body for the more intense and demanding activity to follow.