Chapter 5: Training for Endurance 100 Table 5.4. Training the Three Energy Systems Energy System Ways to Train Phosphagen • Short Distance Sprints (e.g., 40-yd dash, 100-m sprints) Glycolytic • Mid-Distance Sprints (e.g., 200-m sprints, 400-m sprints) • Shuttle Runs (e.g., 300-yd shuttle) Oxidative • Long-Distance Sprints (e.g., 800-m sprints) • Pace-Tempo Training (e.g., 5-min easy, 10-min hard repeats, 1-mile repeats) • Long Slow Distance Runs (e.g., run 3+ miles, run 20+ minutes) Factors Related to Endurance Performance There are four major factors that influence endurance performance: VO2max (aka maximal aerobic power), lactate threshold, exercise economy and muscle fiber type. VO2max is the maximum amount of oxygen the body can take in and utilize during one minute of high intensity exercise. VO2max is expressed mathematically as the amount of O2 consumed by the body in a minute divided by body weight in kilograms (kg). VO2max = ml of O2 consumed Body Weight (kg) A higher VO2max correlates to an increased ability of the muscles to extract and utilize oxygen, which allows the individual to train harder and longer. Additionally, a higher VO2max also correlates to an increased ability of the muscles to buffer lactate production and delay the onset of fatigue. Elite level VO2max scores for males are in the upper 70s into the 80s ml/kg/min and in the mid-60s to low 70s ml/kg/min for females. Conversely, VO2max scores for the average college age male are somewhere between the upper 30s to low 40s ml/kg/min and in the mid-30s ml/kg/ml for the average college age female. After the age of 40, VO2max decreases by roughly 10% per decade until it gets down to 20 ml/kg/min. Table 5.5 provides VO2max score classification based on gender and age (McCardle et al., 2015). Participation in regular endurance training is shown to increase the VO2max of untrained individuals (up to 25-30%). However, significant improvements in well-trained endurance athletes are less likely.