A Christian Guide to Body Stewardship, Diet and Exercise

Chapter 5: Training for Endurance 106 There are two types of pace / tempo training: steady and intermittent. Steady pace / tempo training involves employing training intensities equal to lactate threshold (LT) consistently for 20-30 minutes. Intermittent pace / tempo training also employs training intensities equal to LT but through a series of intervals with brief rest periods in between. With either type (i.e., steady or intermittent), training intensities should not go above LT. In fact, it is recommended to increase training distance rather than intensity. The physiological adaptations associated with pace/tempo training include: improved running economy, improved LT, increased mitochondrial density, increased number and activity of oxidative enzymes and an aerobic shift in the type II muscle fibers (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Interval training is a type of endurance training that employs training intensities close to VO2max. In order to account for, and recover from, the amount of lactate being produced with this type of training, sufficient time should be afforded between intervals. The recommended work-to-rest (work:rest) ratio for interval training is 1:1. Specifically, work intervals should last between 3-5 minutes with similar amount of time afforded for rest in between (e.g., 3 minutes of running followed by 3 minutes of slow walking). The physiological adaptations associated with interval training include increased VO2max and anaerobic metabolism (Haff & Triplett, 2016). High-intensity interval training (HIIT), previously referred to as repetition training, is another type of endurance training used to develop speed and endurance. High-intensity interval training employs short bouts of speed training at intensities above VO2max. The recommended work:rest ratio for HIIT is 1:5. Specifically, work intervals should last between 30-90 seconds with 2.5-7.5 minutes of rest in between. Both interval training and HIIT are very taxing on the body and thus should not be performed more than 1-2 times per week. The physiological adaptations associated with HIIT include increased VO2max and anaerobic metabolism as well as increases in running speed and economy, capillary density, left ventricle size, maximal cardiac output, resting and maximal stroke volume, blood volume and hemoglobin (Haff & Triplett, 2016). Fartlek, which is Swedish for "speed play", is the last type of endurance training that combines low slow distance (LSD) training with several of the other types of endurance training (e.g., pace / tempo, interval). Examples of Fartlek training include running the straightaways and walking the curves on a standard 200-m or 400-m track, running the distance between 4 telephone poles then walking the distance between 2 telephone poles, or performing back-to-front sprints (i.e., type of team jogging where all of the participants are in a single file line where the last person in line sprints to the front, which is repeated for the duration of the exercise). Due to its variability and versatility, Fartlek training may also help to reduce the boredom and monotony often associated with long-term endurance training. The