A Christian Guide to Body Stewardship, Diet and Exercise

Chapter 2: Basic Nutrition 25 Water can be lost in several ways, including perspiration, sweating, urination, and defecation. Water balance (water intake equals water loss) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Those who exercise regularly in dry or cold climates or at high altitudes will need to pay extra attention to water balance. An individual’s hydration status can easily be assessed by their urine color and frequency. For example, Table 2.8 provides estimated hydration status based on urine color (Urine Colors, n.d.). In terms of frequency, optimal hydration is generally associated with urination of about every 1-2 hours while awake. Table 2.8. Hydration Status Based on Urine Color. Well-Hydrated Hydrated Partially Hydrated Partially Dehydrated Dehydrated Drink water as normal Drink a small glass of water now Drink a ½ bottle (¼ liter) of water within the hour Drink a ½ bottle (¼ liter) now Drink 2 bottles (1 liter) of water now The AI for water, published by the Institute of Medicine (2005), for men and women over the age of 19 is 3.7 liters (or about 15.5 cups) and 2.7 liters (or about 11.4 cups) per day, respectively. This includes water from both foods and beverages. The recommendation for beverages alone is 3 liters (or about 13 cups) and 2.2 liters (about 9 cups), respectively (Fink & Mikesky, 2021). Eating a well-balanced diet that includes fruits and vegetables can also help contribute to daily fluid intake. Table 2.8 provides additional recommendations for daily water intake (Quinn, 2020). Table 2.9. Water Intake Recommendations in Fluid Ounces per Day Low End High End General health (not including exercise) Bodyweight (lbs.) x 0.5 Bodyweight (lbs.) x 1.0 2 hours before exercise 16 oz. 24 oz. 20-30 minutes before exercise 8 oz. - During normal exercise (≤ 60 min.) 8 oz. every 15 min. - During high-intensity exercise (≥ 90 min.) * 8 oz. every 15-30 min. 10 oz. every 15-30 min. After exercise 16 oz. for every lb. lost 24 oz. for every lb. lost * Carbohydrate/electrolyte replenishing sports drink with 60-100 kcal per 8 oz. serving