A Christian Guide to Body Stewardship, Diet and Exercise

Chapter 2: Basic Nutrition 37 Other Diets Paleolithic (paleo) diet. The paleo diet can be a healthy eating strategy, if done correctly, due to its incorporation of high quality, nutrient-dense foods such as nuts, seeds, eggs, fruits, vegetables and grassfed beef. However, limiting oneself to just these foods can be expensive. Another concern is that most of the recommended foods are very low in carbohydrates, which may hinder athletic performance. Additionally, some users of this diet unnecessarily restrict or eliminate certain nutrient- dense foods such as sweet potatoes, dairy, beans and legumes. Again, the paleo diet can be a healthy dietary strategy if an individual does not avoid or restrict certain food groups from their diet (e.g., starches, whole grains, dairy). Vegetarian diet. Similar to intermittent fasting, there are several different types of vegetarian diets: vegan (i.e., diet consists of plant products only); lacto-vegetarian (i.e., diet consists of plant and milk products); ovo-vegetarian (i.e., diet consists of plant and egg products); and lacto-ovo-vegetarian (i.e., diets consists of plant, milk and egg products). Similar to the paleo diet, the vegetarian diet can be a healthy dietary strategy if done correctly. Since most plant products are incomplete proteins, careful attention must be made to ensure all essential (indispensible) amino acids and other key nutrients are included in the diet. For example, vegetarians sometimes have a hard time getting enough of the following nutrients in their diet: vitamin D, vitamin B12, iron, zinc and calcium. As a result, it may be necessary to take a daily dietary supplement and/or follow-up with a healthcare provider to ensure they do not develop any nutritional deficiencies. Supplements Although there are numerous dietary supplements on the market, research has shown that very few actually do what they claim to do. The few supplements that seem to live up to the hype include: protein shakes, chocolate milk, creatine and caffeine. Supplements not listed do not have credible support for their use in the literature and therefore are not included in the discussion. Protein shakes. There are several different types of protein: whey (comprises 20% of milk protein), casein (comprises 80% of milk protein) soy, egg, and pea. Whey protein is digested and absorbed very quickly (i.e., within 20 minutes), whereas, casein and soy proteins are digested and absorbed more slowly (i.e., 2-4 hours). As a result, whey protein consumption is recommended immediately after a workout due to its fast absorption; whereas casein protein consumption is recommended before bed due its slower rate of absorption (Dunford & Doyle, 2015; Rosenbloom & Coleman, 2012). Research suggests consuming