The Relationship of Jewish and Gentile Believers to the Law Between A.D. 30 and 70 in the Scripture

147 old assumption that Judaism was a pedantic system of works righteousness has come under severe criticism as E. P. Sanders has argued that first century Judaism clearly recognized the primary importance of God's grace in the election of Israel. 3 This "paradigm shift" 4 has revitalized discussions of Paul, bringing fresh breezes to studies which were stale with sixteenth century air. Thus, several new approaches to Pauline theology and the book of Galatians in particular, have recently developed. Recent Approaches to the Book At the center of each of these new attempts to interpret the book of Galatians is the antithesis between "works" and "faith." From 2: 16 to 4: 11 in particular , Paul contrasts Epya voµou and n(aTt<; as mutually exclusive categories. In 2: 16 the contrast is first stated in these terms when Paul says "knowing that a man is not justified f~ Epywv voµou but through " n(an:wc; 'Iri~oO XptaToO, even we have believed in Christ Jesus that we may be justified EK n(an:wc; XptciToO and not f~ Epywv voµou, because f~ Epywv voµou shall no flesh be justified. " Throughout chapters two through four Paul speaks of two categories: one involves Christ, faith, Spirit, righteousness and blessing while the other involves law, works , flesh , sin and cursing. Each school of thought can be described by how it handles these two categories and particularly the terms Epya voµou and n(anc;. 3 Ibid . Th eminal tudy in thi fi Id ha been provided b . P . and r h fir t monograph wa Paul and Palestinian Judai m: A Compari on of Pattern of Religion (Philadelphia: ortre r s , 1 77). Th t rm u d by Mo , ' Paul and the L " 7, and b rro ed fr m R b rt J tt, "The La and th i tence of J w and entile in R m n , " Interpretation ( 1 ) : 341