Cedarville Magazine, Fall 2023


Our culture is at a crossroads. We live in a society that has rejected its Creator. Turn on the evening news or scroll through your newsfeed and you’ll hear stories of people who are hostile toward the Gospel. What’s wrong is right and what’s right is wrong. These are difficult times for Christians working in fields that are antiGod. None of this is a surprise to Him, though. In Matthew 24, Jesus foretold that “false prophets will arise and lead many astray.” And the Apostle Paul warns in 2 Timothy 3 of a time when people will be “lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God.” Sound familiar? There’s never been a time more in need of biblically faithful education that speaks truth directly into the chaos of our culture. Nowhere do you see this chaos greater than in the fields of government, education, psychology, and the literary arts. Not so coincidentally, we offer programs in each of these fields at Cedarville University, taught through a biblical lens in stark contrast to the teachings of the world. We present truth from God’s Word that fights against the lies of the enemy and the distortions of the world, but it isn’t easy. In this issue of Cedarville Magazine, you’ll discover how Cedarville is preparing our students to stand firm in their faith at the crossroads of culture. You’ll read how our Department of English, Literature, and Modern Languages is equipping students to translate Scripture into the languages of people groups that have no Bibles. You’ll meet an international studies professor who is serving in local government, modeling civic responsibility to his students while shining his light before men. You’ll learn how Cedarville’s psychology program is firmly anchored to a biblical worldview, which guides the framework for how we approach the subject and how we teach it here. You’ll read how our School of Education and Social Work faculty members are equipping future teachers to make a difference for Christ in public and Christian schools. And, you’ll read testimonies from alumni who are walking well, by God’s grace, in these challenging fields. We do not bring students onto our distinctly Christian campus to keep them from the world, but to prepare them for the world, equipping them to go out and make a Gospel impact. Now more than ever our culture needs Christ-followers who will boldly confront culture with truth. Now more than ever we must engage culture as we stand firm for the Word of God and the Testimony of Jesus Christ. In Christ, Thomas White President cedarville.edu/president @DrThomasWhite facebook.com/DrThomasWhite instagram.com/drthomaswhite linkedin.com/in/jthomaswhite FALL 2023 Volume 11 Issue 3 Editor Janice (Warren) Supplee ’86 Managing Editor Caroline (Tomlinson) Kimball ’22 Creative Director Chad Jackson ’05 Art Director and GraphicDesigner Craig Salisbury Photographer Scott Huck Copy Editor Michele (Cummings) Solomon ’91 ADMINISTRATION President Thomas White Senior Advisor to the President Loren Reno ’70 Chief of Staff Zach Bowden Vice President for Academics Thomas Mach ’88 Vice President for Advancement Will Smallwood Vice President for Business and Chief Financial Officer Christopher Sohn Vice President for Enrollment Management Scott Van Loo ’98 Vice President for Marketing and Communications Janice (Warren) Supplee ’86 Vice President for Student Life and Christian Ministries Jonathan Wood Vice President for Athletics Christopher Cross OUR MISSION Cedarville University transforms lives through excellent education and intentional discipleship in submission to biblical authority. OUR VISION For the Word of God and the Testimony of Jesus Christ, Cedarville Magazine is published spring, summer, and fall and mailed free of charge to alumni and supporters of Cedarville University. 1-800-CEDARVILLE • cedarville.edu Direct inquiries and address changes to: Cedarville Magazine Cedarville University 251 N. Main St., Cedarville, OH 45314 cedarville.edu/magazine magazine@cedarville.edu 1-888-CEDARVILLE READ ONLINE! Visit cedarville.edu/magazineFA23 on your computer or mobile device. On the cover: Luke Tse is the Chair of the Department of Psychology at Cedarville University. He earned his PhD and Master of Divinity from New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. PRESIDENT'S PERSPECTIVE

IN EVERY ISSUE FEATURES 02 OVERCOMING DARKNESS WITH LIGHT THOMAS WHITE — Our students are at a crossroads of a post-Christian culture and a commitment to biblical truth. At Cedarville, we prepare them not only to survive but also to thrive and shine as lights in the dark world we live in. Even in the midst of cultural chaos, we will never waver but stand firm for the Word of God and the Testimony of Jesus Christ. 06 FROM THE CONFUSION OF BABEL TO THE LANGUAGE OF THE GREAT COMMISSION NICK CARRINGTON ’10 — Ever since the Tower of Babel, Christians have had the weighty task of translating the Bible into unknown languages. The Department of English, Literature, and Modern Languages takes this call seriously — equipping students with the tools needed to go spread the Gospel among all nations. Language and cultural barriers make this a difficult task — our faculty and students are facing the difficulty head on. 10 A CALL FOR INTEGRITY AND GOSPEL INFLUENCE GLEN DUERR — Words like elections, government, and bureaucracy may bring a sense of dread to the believer. But Christians have the great responsibility of standing for truth in a world that can’t distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil. Christianity in politics is not only possible but necessary. 14 PSYCHOLOGY THROUGH A BIBLICAL WORLDVIEW LUKE TSE — Christianity and psychology are often at odds. But Cedarville University approaches psychology from a biblical foundation and scriptural lens in order to understand God’s design. Cedarville’s Department of Psychology does not abandon God’s Word but approaches science with belief in the sufficiency of Scripture. 18 MY STORY Hear from political science, English, and education graduates who share the realities of life at the crossroads of culture. 22 CULTURE CLASHES IN THE CLASSROOM KEVIN JONES — What’s the big deal about education? Our public schools are in a crisis — middle schoolers and high schoolers are facing the mental toll of our post-Christian society. Who’s to step in? It’s the Christian educators who pour their hearts and souls into the education and encouragement of our society’s most vulnerable population. Christian educators are needed desperately to shed light in the darkness of our culture. Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, and what is good and acceptable and perfect. Romans 12:2 26 CHAPEL NOTES 28 ADVANCING CEDARVILLE 30 CAMPUS NEWS 34 YELLOW JACKET SPORTS 39 MOMENT IN TIME 40 IN CLOSING 1 IN THIS ISSUE


We are praying and planning for a new academic center that will potentially house five disciplines that stand at the crossroads of a post-Christian culture and a commitment to biblical truth. While all academic content must be evaluated through the lens of biblical authority, these disciplines are on the front lines, and the opportunity for impact is significant, but so, too, is the opposition. These areas include history and government; psychology; English, literature, and modern languages; education; and social work. I am convinced that these disciplines, taught from a biblical worldview, are crucial for Christian cultural engagement. Almost every discipline has something that contradicts a biblical worldview. At Cedarville, our faculty sign our doctrinal statement every year. I interview all potential full-time faculty members, listening to their testimonies, asking about their personal Bible reading, hearing about their local church involvement, and questioning their adherence to our doctrinal statement. At tenure, each faculty member writes a paper that expresses a biblical worldview and demonstrates how that worldview affects his or her discipline. The author illustrates subject matter that must be rejected, affirmed, or redeemed. Cedarville faculty members provide our students with an education, allowing informed decisions for personal convictions. In short, Cedarville University transforms lives through excellent education and intentional discipleship in submission to biblical authority. HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT: EQUIPPING GRADUATES WITH CHARACTER AND BOLDNESS FOR THE PUBLIC SQUARE America needs character combined with conservative values. We need historians that will accurately tell the truth without bending the facts to fit a political agenda. We need criminal justice professionals who personify Micah 6:8 by doing justice, loving kindness, and walking humbly with our God. We need politicians who desire to serve the people, abide by a strict interpretation of the Constitution, and pursue American exceptionalism. Too many politicians lack character and virtue, seeking selfish gain rather than serving others to advocate for human flourishing. At Cedarville, we equip our students to live out their faith in the public sector. We teach our students to affirm life from conception, that marriage is a covenant between one man and one woman for life, that we should tell the truth, and that we should conduct ourselves to be above reproach. We introduce students to various worldviews, teaching how these worldviews fall short of the truth presented in Scripture. Envision with me a new generation of politicians who could be trusted to tell the truth, treat others (even enemies) with respect, legislate for human flourishing, and seek to do what is right in all situations. These politicians would help our nation and its citizens grow and thrive. Our historians would accurately diagnose Marxism or socialistic influences and teach accurately about their historic failures. We graduate students prepared to stand and share the light of the Gospel into the darkness of hearts and souls. 3

Students who will one day walk the halls of Congress should be educated in a building of similar excellence. PSYCHOLOGY: BRINGING THE SCALPEL OF BIBLICAL PRECISION AND THE HEART OF CHRISTIAN COMPASSION Every one of our faculty members personally affirms the authority, inerrancy, and sufficiency of Scripture. That alone makes Cedarville a unique place. When it comes to psychology, many Christian schools have either compromised or completely abandoned the discipline altogether. Cedarville has chosen to take a scalpel of biblical precision to the discipline of psychology and with prayer and humility teach our students what must be rejected, affirmed, and redeemed. We need more people in the field of psychology committed to the authority of Scripture, and I fear that we have defaulted to abandoning the area rather than seeking to redeem it. For example, Christians agree that all people have sin issues, but rather than take that understanding from influential authors in the field of psychology, we redeem the principle and place it in the proper context of Genesis 3. Rejecting the notion of self-esteem, we instruct our students to find value and worth from being created in the image of God. The imago dei creates equality among the one human race and every ethnos or tongue. We know we are loved and valued because God sent His only Son to die in our place and for our sakes. God showed His love in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Repentance of sin and faith in Christ results in justification, redemption, adoption, and new life in Christ. This world with its tribulation is not our final home. We are citizens of heaven and ambassadors of Christ to this world, awaiting our heavenly home and taking joy in the fact that Christ has ultimately overcome the world. We all experience problems in this life, but a biblical worldview communicates genuine worth, that we are truly loved, and that we have a future hope. Genuine, lasting mental health flows from a biblical understanding of the world. We graduate students prepared to stand and share the light of the Gospel into the darkness of our hearts and souls. ENGLISH, LITERATURE, AND MODERN LANGUAGES (ELML): SHARING THE GREATEST STORY EVER TOLD Words matter. We communicate the greatest truth ever told through words — whether spoken or written. An English degree helps students understand the power of the written word. It equips them to write fiction, poetry, and perhaps even sermons that use the power of words and stories to point people to Christ. In our modern world, a place that affirms universal truth, rejects postmodernism, and seeks authorial intent is rare. Cedarville is that place. Think about the implications beyond English, literature, or composition classes. We have foreign language professors training students to speak other languages with excellence, equipping them to build relationships and share the Gospel internationally. At Cedarville, we desire for every student to take a Global Outreach (GO) missions trip before graduation. For those learning Spanish, French, or another language, they can put those skills into practice immediately by sharing the Gospel on these trips. And what about those who have never heard the Gospel or don’t have the Bible in their heart language? Cedarville teaches linguistics. In fact, one of our French and linguistic professors served as a missionary overseas for 25 years and translated the Bible into one of those languages. ELML has the opportunity to make a huge impact on the Kingdom of God and to help finish the task of global evangelization in our lifetime. EDUCATION: TRAINING TEACHERS TO LOVE GOD AND OTHERS Speaking of missions, there may be no greater mission field than the public school system. At Cedarville, we train teachers to love God and love others. We cast a vision for our teacher candidates to pour their lives out for others, whether that comes through homeschooling, private schooling, or public schooling. Imagine the impact if God called a generation of Christian teachers to serve in public schools among the least churched populations in America. Even in Ohio, we have cities where the vast majority do not believe in Christ or attend church on a regular basis. What if teachers considered their occupation a God-called vocation, using their platform as a place to love their students well and to share the Gospel of Jesus Christ whenever possible? Their ministry would reach into places where local church pastors may never go and reach people who may never visit a Sunday service. These teachers serve as missionaries at Kingdom outposts for the advancement of the Gospel message. What if their excellence, diligence, compassion, and faithfulness provided a living witness to their commitment of doing everything as unto the Lord? What if their excellent education provided opportunities for students to read the Bible for themselves or to advance their influence through additional educational opportunities? Whether serving in inner-city schools, private Christian schools, or homeschool, our teachers can reach people for Jesus. SOCIAL WORK: MINISTRY TO HURTING CHILDREN AND VICTIMS Our country desperately needs more social workers. There may be no greater area of ministry in society. Social workers go into horrible situations where unspeakable acts have occurred. They advocate for and minister to children and victims. They bring love and hope into situations often devoid of both. Social workers have a calling that requires them to give and give without having their own cups replenished. Reliance upon a deeper well of spiritual 4

Thomas White is President of Cedarville University. He earned his PhD in systematic theology from Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. faith allows them to serve without burning out. Having completed victim advocacy training myself, I have learned more about the depravity of mankind and the need for this ministry. This has resulted in a profound appreciation for the heart and ministry of our social work professionals and victim advocates. A CALL TO SHINE THE LIGHT In each of these disciplines, Cedarville alumni are doing exactly as I described, but they need reinforcements. We need to train thousands more, and we need the right spaces to provide that training. We need to prevent another generation from being lost to educational systems proselytizing for secular humanism, evolutionary theory, and a Godless atheism. If we want to attract the best and the brightest to come to Cedarville and study for such purposes, then we must construct a facility that indicates the importance of the task. A space where life transformation can occur as faculty pour into the lives of students and where students learn with excellence to take the good news to the ends of the earth. Currently, our space does not demonstrate excellence. Williams Hall served as a residence hall for many years. It was converted into academic space and is the only building on our campus that civil engineers determined should not be renovated any further but should be torn down. The hallways are not wide enough for two people to walk side by side, and the ceiling in those hallways is about 7 feet high. The faculty members for these areas are spread all over campus. They lack the opportunity for strategic collaboration and the collegiality that we desire. Students desiring to visit two professors who teach in the same area must travel to different parts of campus. For generations, Cedarville has desired to have “quality stamped all over it,” and excellence is one of our core values. We must do better to provide a quality facility and environment for these programs. We need your help. We can’t do this alone. First, and most importantly, would you pray for us? Unless God builds, we labor in vain. We want wisdom from above to serve as faithful stewards. Second, would you send students to visit our campus? When students arrive on campus, they frequently understand the Cedarville difference and decide to study with us. Third, we constantly need new faculty and staff bought into our vision and mission. We need excellent team members who want to make a difference for eternity and an impact on students’ lives. Perhaps God is calling you or someone you know to join us. Finally, you can have a part in helping us build a new academic center where we will intentionally equip graduates with a biblical worldview and passion for the Gospel in the fields of history and government; psychology; English, literature, and modern languages; education; and social work. For this facility to be built and for this need to be met, we need an army of regular people — just like you and me — who care about our culture, our nation, and the Gospel to come alongside us. You can join me in making an investment that will pay eternal dividends as we store up treasures in Heaven. WE STAND BOLDLY Friends, we have the light, and the light overcomes the darkness. The gates of Hell shall not prevail against us. Our chaotic culture has questions, anxiety, victims, and depression. We have the good news of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and hope for tomorrow. Now is not the time to shrink back, but the time to be bold. Join us as we stand firm for the Word of God and the Testimony of Jesus Christ. We need to prevent another generation from being lost to educational systems proselytizing for secular humanism, evolutionary theory, and a God-less atheism. As we plan for a world-class facility that will house these critical areas of study, would you pray for and consider supporting Cedarville so that we can provide the offices, classrooms, and collaboration spaces that match the caliber of these programs and faculty? 5


FROM THE CONFUSION OF BABEL TO THE LANGUAGE OF THE GREAT COMMISSION Ever since Jesus commanded His followers to make disciples of all nations, Christians have traversed the globe, seeking to fulfill the Great Commission despite numerous challenges. In Cedarville’s English, literature, and modern languages (ELML) department, faculty work hard to prepare students to overcome two of the biggest hurdles: language and cultural barriers. The goal is to make a difference now and for eternity. “In Revelation, there are people from every tribe, tongue, and nation around the throne,” said Cristi Vallejos, Assistant Professor of Spanish. “Understanding languages and cultures allows us to have a part in that. We want to be working toward that end.” When sin came into the world, both our relationship to God and relationship to other people broke, including the way we communicate and understand each other. At the time of Babel, God confused the people’s language and dispersed them all over the earth, exercising both mercy and judgment. Now, Christians have the hard task of breaking down barriers to share the Gospel in every language, and language study plays a significant role in that effort. ELML has Bachelor of Arts degrees in both Spanish and linguistics but also offers minors and classes in French, German, Arabic, and several other languages. Because a foreign language is a general education requirement, many students take these courses whether they major in the department or not, and they are learning more than just languages: Each class immerses students in a people’s literature and culture. Through these studies, graduates better connect with people who come from different backgrounds but have the same BY NICK CARRINGTON ’10 Christians have the hard task of breaking down barriers to share the Gospel in every language, and language study plays a significant role in that effort. PHOTO LEFT: Meet Campbell Lino ’27, linguistics major and high school valedictorian. Watch Campbell share the Gospel with her graduating class from Atascocita High School in Humble, Texas, at cedarville.edu/CampbellSpeech. 7

spiritual need — a Savior. “Our Lord Jesus through His Word answers the questions every culture or individual is asking, and we want to hear those questions well,” said Dr. Merideth Pitts, Assistant Professor of Linguistics. “As His ambassadors, we seek to carry His Word with love and clarity across linguistic and cultural barriers.” OVERCOMING LANGUAGE BARRIERS There are at least 1,800 known languages without a translated copy of the Bible. The Wycliffe Global Alliance estimates that 129 million people have no portion of Scripture translated in their native tongue. For Campbell Lino ’27, a linguistics major, that is unacceptable. “People need the Gospel in their heart language," she said. “Faith comes by hearing, and if you don’t have the Word in your language, how can you grow in your faith?” This fall, Lino started her studies with the long-term goal of translating Scripture for an unreached people group. But in her heart, God has been cultivating a desire to serve other cultures for many years. In kindergarten, she tested well enough to qualify for a Spanish immersion program at her otherwise English-speaking school, an opportunity her parents found valuable. So from first through fifth grade, her schooling was entirely in Spanish and by seventh grade, she felt called to be a missionary. Her dream home is a mud hut among people who need the Gospel but lack access to it. “God’s given me a passion and a gift for languages, and I want to use that,” she explained. She came to Cedarville to learn about language from a biblical worldview and take advantage of the University’s connections, connections she hopes will make her a translator sooner rather than later. Pitts says that translation jobs are expected to grow by more than 20% over the next eight years. This gives ELML graduates an opportunity to address the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of people with various backgrounds. “Linguists who focus on Bible translation help carry the message of the Scriptures accurately into a new linguistic community, not only through direct translation work, but also through a variety of support roles including literacy education,” she explained. Linguistic majors often pair their program with one of the other languages taught in the department and, after graduating, will use that skillset to teach people English or another language. They help people adjust to new languages and cultures, aiding vulnerable individuals during an often-overwhelming transition. But language study isn’t just for majors in the department; in a world where work is more global, understanding multiple languages is important for all Christians. “In whatever career you’re in, it’s more and more likely you will interact with people who speak other languages,” said Vallejos. “You can connect with people on a different level when you’ve taken the time to learn their language.” Knowing multiple languages helps Christians develop friendships where they can share their faith and better serve those friends. Vallejos’ own interest in languages blossomed when she was only 5 or 6 years old. Her home church had a migrant ministry where the congregation would provide everyday supplies for local immigrants. There was always a translator during these interactions, but even at a young age, Vallejos wanted to communicate with migrants on her own. Now she sees how important languages are to the global church. “It glorifies God to be praised in all kinds of languages instead of just one,” she said. OVERCOMING OTHER OBSTACLES For Christians who translate or work in dangerous countries or remote villages, the challenges can be daunting. Dr. Waller, Assistant Professor of French and Linguistics, has seen it all. “Our people were under threat all the time,” he said. Sometimes, husbands would be detained or kicked out of the country, leaving their families behind. The challenges due to persecution can be daunting. Ultimately, it is our hope that people from every tribe, tongue, and nation will praise our God. 8

Open Doors International estimates that 5,898 Christians were killed for their faith in 2022 and over 360 million were persecuted heavily for following Christ. Those numbers were significant increases over the previous year. Waller thinks these numbers can give believers in the U.S. some perspective. “There are challenges in America being a Christian, but Christians elsewhere are imprisoned or tortured and sometimes lose their lives,” he explained. That perspective allowed Waller to shift his mindset, something he believes American Christians need to do when they go overseas. Instead of thinking of themselves as leaders, he encourages a humble heart, one dedicated to learning and working alongside the global church instead of guiding it as a superior. Even when the threat of imprisonment or deportation died down, Waller’s challenges did not go away. “I had a stomach bug for 20 years,” he said. “If you go to the field, you will get sick. It’s just a matter of what sickness you get.” The weakness that comes from prolonged illness caused Waller and his team to rely on the Lord every day. “I’d be begging the Lord, if you want me to keep doing this, I need help.” But Waller has no regrets and hopes to pour out a passion for translation to his students, regardless of how difficult their circumstances get. He emphasizes how his team continued their work despite the challenges until the Word was fully translated. Now that translation is branching out into different dialects, and the excitement in his voice is palpable. “People are coming to faith and being discipled in it. What a great privilege to be a part of that work,” he shared. FOLLOWING GOD’S CALL Lino’s love of languages is best described as a love for God and for people. She longs to reach the lost and fears that too many Christians forego a core skill— language learning—in proclaiming Christ to the nations. “Everybody should try to learn multiple languages because there are going to be people that you can’t reach if you speak only one language,” she explained. Her heart makes her an excellent fit in the ELML department at Cedarville. “We recognize that for us to believe the Gospel, we needed someone to explain it to us in a language we understand,” Vallejos said. Language and culture study is one way of doing that for others. With so many people who have no copy of Scripture or only portions available, there is plenty of work to do, but ELML graduates are also excelling in other important ways. One recent graduate of the linguistics program serves as a crosscultural ambassador with the U.S. State Department’s Fulbright Program in Spain. Another teaches Haitian speakers English, serving students who are newcomers to the United States. Others are in graduate programs as teaching assistants, teaching and serving international students in an intensive English program. These graduates serve others by helping them overcome language and cultural barriers, giving these individuals a better chance to succeed in life. The relationships ELML graduates form in these roles will allow them to share their faith more easily. Ultimately, it is our hope that people from every tribe, tongue, and nation will praise our God. The harvest is abundant, and our English, literature, and modern languages department is raising up harvesters to have an eternal impact for the Kingdom. Nicholas Carrington ’10 serves as Associate Professor of Communication. He earned his PhD in technical communication and rhetoric from Texas Tech University. 9


Elections. Even the mere mention of the word may fill you with a set of perspiration-inducing emotions, perhaps ranging from excitement and opportunity, intransigence and helplessness, or dread and foreboding. In the case of the nonpolitical person, a different reaction: a gut-wrenching exasperation that political commercials will almost certainly interrupt your favorite shows for months on end. It would be tempting for followers of Christ, in any of these categories, to throw up their hands in despair. Yet, as the British Prime Minister and statesman Winston Churchill said in 1947, “Many forms of government have been tried, and will be tried in this world of sin and woe … democracy is the worst form of government except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.” There is much to praise God for in our day. Political problems abound, there is little doubt, but there is much cause for rejoicing as well. The economic and technological advances in the last few decades alone give us cause for optimism in that we in the United States have plenty of resources scarcely imaginable for previous generations, plus the blessing of being able to disseminate the Gospel literally around the world through social media and other forms of technology. Despite this, there are harrowing scourges of our day, from a divisive ethnic war started by Vladimir Putin, a wretched growth in 11

human trafficking, and brutal challenges of drug overdoses — among many pertinent societal issues. With that in mind, Cedarville University’s Department of History and Government takes the call to run for office, govern, and serve in government seriously. We seek to build up students so that they are ready to take the Gospel and the love of Christ to government offices at the local, state, and federal levels; to law enforcement and in the military; and to the spheres of intelligence and the diplomatic corps. As such, the department is filled with faculty with both academic and practical experience. Amongst our group, we have a former Police Chief, City Manager, JAG corps Air Force officer, Special Investigator, and several that have served on numerous political campaigns. I, myself, currently serve on the City Council in Beavercreek, Ohio — a city of almost 50,000 people about a 30-minute drive west of Cedarville’s campus. As you may imagine, serving in a political office in the contemporary era is not an easy endeavor. Often, one’s choices are rightly limited by various constitutions, and sometimes very difficult issues land on your desk with immediacy. Periodically, elected officials are confronted with two alternatives for policy decisions: a bad option or a worse one. Yet, Romans 13:4 serves as a constant admonition for me — to do good for the people and avoid what is evil so that the people may not be afraid. 1 Timothy 2:2 similarly captures my attention because good government allows the faithful to lead tranquil and quiet lives in all godliness and dignity. Even when confronted with challenging votes in Council, how can I best serve the people in line with Romans 13:4 and 1 Timothy 2:2? Christians should be involved in politics and, at the very least, should vote. Is there anything in Scripture that explicitly commands followers of Christ to do so? No, there is little overt reference because the New Testament was written when the Roman Empire was predominant; Jesus came not to overthrow the Roman Emperor, but to provide the avenue to rescue men and women from their sin. However, there are sections of Scripture that speak to the need for upstanding leaders and impartial judges. If Christians flee from the public sphere and do not engage in the issues of our day — if we are not willing to roll up our sleeves and deal with messy problems — then those who make decisions will almost definitely be devoid of any fear of the Lord. We encourage our students to take the bold step, if they are so called, to get involved, and maybe even to run for office. The natural next question, though, is not an easy one: What happens if you win your election? GOVERNMENT Another term that rarely inspires good thoughts for believers and nonbelievers alike. Many people in our society lament those who serve in office, sometimes for good reason. Nevertheless, Scripture provides us with a different view. Romans 13:1 and Titus 3:1 instruct us to be subject to the governing authorities, and 1 Timothy 2:1–2 exhorts us to pray for those in authority. The Department of History and Government also spearheads a Washington, D.C., Semester that takes up to 15 students each fall to the nation’s capital to engage in an internship while If Christians flee from the public sphere and do not engage in the issues of our day — if we are not willing to roll up our sleeves and deal with messy problems — then those that make decisions will almost definitely be devoid of any fear of the Lord. 12

taking a couple of courses that fulfill the requirements for a minor in public policy. Our students work in internships on Capitol Hill, research organizations (think tanks), media organizations, and nonprofits, among many options. Some of the positions are eye-opening and yet so important for the functioning of a democratic system. For example, a few dozen of our students over the years have answered phone calls for congressmen. As you might imagine, these conversations are not usually pleasant in tone or intonation. However, these interactions present a great opportunity to be salt and light in very difficult circumstances. For an institution the size of Cedarville, our alumni base is much larger than one would expect in the nation’s capital — put colloquially, we punch above our weight. Our mission is to prepare young men and women to follow God’s call and make a difference at all levels of government upon graduation. BUREAUCRACY A third term that can cause even the most mature believers in Christ to stumble. Charges that government entities like the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) target conservatives and Christians have been regular in recent years — in some cases, with substantial merit. Sometimes the response is to get angry or to react with lament about the seeming downward trajectory of the country. Our view in the Department of History and Government is not to complain, but to initiate change. What can we do to be part of the solution? In recent years, nearly a dozen graduates have found employment in the FBI, Central Intelligence Agency, or the Defense Intelligence Agency. Their success is not a solution to the challenges of modern bureaucracy, but wholehearted followers of Christ with a degree from Cedarville University are now moving through these bureaus or agencies with integrity. REDEMPTION Finally, a word that brings hope! Each member of the faculty at Cedarville University is required to write an integration paper. This paper prompts us all to think through how our respective disciplines align, or not, with Scripture. In particular, one section of the integration paper requires thinking through a trichotomy: Can we accept, reject, or redeem what our discipline ascribes? In politics, the reality is that redemption is easy to say and very difficult to practically implement. And we know that all have sinned and have fallen short of the glory of God. For the follower of Christ called to work in or around government, it is a high calling to stand for God’s Kingdom in places that may seek to remove or denounce Him with alacrity. In Genesis, it was God who created the institutions of the family, church, and government. The family and the church are obvious places for ministry, and for initiating societal change. But so is the government. This is not to argue that Christ-followers should take government by force; rather, believers can provide influence in the public policy sphere by promoting ideas that align with Scripture and supporting the other God-ordained institutions, family and church, if they are so willing to stand. In this vein, one of the central dangers is to avoid a slide to extremism. Standing firm on God’s Word is paramount, but there are ditches to avoid — on the one side, being too apathetic about politics; on the other side, being too embroiled in politics with the undergirding assumption that the Lord is no longer sovereign in our sphere. It is a tough balance. Christians should rightly be consumed with completing ministry but should not neglect evils penetrating our land. We may not win every battle, but an important step is to stand for biblical positions, even if the world outvotes us. The key, here, is integrity in politics at all levels of government, with a devotion to sharing Christ with those who oppose the things of God. May the Lord find us active and sharing the Gospel in whatever vocation He has for us — even if He calls us to the halls of government. Glen Duerr is Chair of the Department of History and Government and City Councilman in Beavercreek, Ohio. He earned his PhD in political science from Kent State University. We may not win every battle, but an important step is to stand for biblical positions, even if the world outvotes us. 13

PSYCHOLOGY THROUGH A BIBLICAL WORLDVIEWBY LUKE TSE When I first came to Cedarville University 22 years ago, I was struck by the motto that hung on the wall of the Department of Psychology: “Psychology Through a Biblical Worldview.” As someone who was unfamiliar with the University at that time and what it stood for, it helped me appreciate the heartbeat of the Department and the University. In the years since, that motto has remained an anchor and framework for our approach to psychology and how we teach it at Cedarville. The American Psychological Association describes psychology as “a diverse discipline, grounded in science, but with nearly 14


boundless applications in everyday life.” Psychology pulls resources from a myriad of disciplines beyond itself: biology, medicine, and social and behavioral sciences. It is grounded in scientific empiricism and investigative protocols. Indeed, what has been learned about “being human” has informed professionals and lay-persons in all sectors of life and work, formally and informally. Significantly, our Christian faith is undergirded by much empirical evidence: historical records, archaeological findings, geological indicators, and more. Having grown up in multicultural settings where I have encountered many religions, I often say that Christianity is the most scientifically grounded, evidence-based religion of all! SCIENCE WITHIN THE LIMITATIONS OF A FALLEN WORLD The problem with psychology, or any science and scholarship for that matter, is a disregard for the reality of God. Most scientists and scholars have insisted on using only natural sources as data for truth-finding and have minimized or circumvented the special revelation of God scripted into the Bible. The phrase “based on science” has become an axiom for disqualifying other claims of fact or truth. “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and knowledge of the Holy One is understanding” (Prov. 9:10, ESV). In a post-Eden existence, nonChristian scholars do not understand that this present reality is, at best, a vague glimpse of the infinite reality of God (1 Cor. 13:12; Isa. 55:8–9). In the context of a fallen world, our natural reality is a broken one; everything and everyone has fallen away from the original perfect design (Rom. 3:23). When investigators use imperfect and incomplete data to determine norms, errors are bound to result. And when inaccurate conclusions are published and broadcast, people are misled. The problems with human errors are, in fact, well known within the scientific community. To guard against human subjectivity, studies are often replicated, and their findings tested for consistencies. Yet, despite the caution and rigors of science, half of classic psychology studies cannot be replicated with the same results. The truth is that what is “based on science” seldom holds the authority that some scientists would like for others to think. This is especially the case for social, behavioral, and psychological science. SCIENCE WITH SCRIPTURE AS THE FOUNDATION Scientific investigations are complete only when all relevant data are considered. Scripture is the crucial dataset that must be mined for relevant information, godly perspectives, and proper interpretations and applications. Indeed, it must be understood as the foundation against which all data are evaluated. When the special revelation of God is ignored and only naturalistic evidence is submitted for consideration, scholars are inevitably partial to their evidence and their own opinions. Christian scholars are called to set our minds on things above, to glean truths that are also in the Bible, and not to rely on human insight or empirical evidence alone (2 Tim. 3:16; Col. 3:1–2; 2 Cor. 5:7). Cedarville University is an institution of higher education. As Christian educators, scholars, and scientists, our pursuit of knowledge is to supplement our faith, not to supersede or reinterpret it. PSYCHOLOGY CAN PROVIDE UNDERSTANDING AND EXPLANATION. GOD PROVIDES ULTIMATE SOLUTIONS As an academic discipline, we can acknowledge that psychology has contributed much to an understanding of In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths. (Proverbs 3:6, ESV) 16

ourselves and our lived experiences. David Powlison, one of the pioneers of biblical counseling, recognized that psychology is one among many sources for providing significant knowledge: “Human beings operate psychologically. The torrent of experiences, thoughts, feelings, motives, attitudes, memories, volitions, beliefs, assumptions, schemata, perceptions, and so on” are well-investigated and described by psychology. However, when psychology presents alternative rationales, aspirations, and solutions for human well-being, it presents a competing and critically incomplete paradigm. In this, Christian scholars and psychologists must offer empirically and biblically sound directives. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE APOSTLE PAUL ON THE HUMAN CONDITION To illustrate an example of our approach to psychology, let me use a classical figure to make a point — Sigmund Freud. To simplify one of his theories, Freud postulated that there are three hidden forces within each person: the Ego (the Self); the Id (impulsive, emotionseeking drives); and the Super Ego (pressuring towards perfectionism and conformity). Since the motives of Id and Superego are opposing forces acting on the Ego, the individual would often feel conflicted or stressed as a result. This psychological concept has often been caricatured in cartoons as people having an angelic version of themselves speaking good on one shoulder and on the other shoulder, a devilish version of themselves suggesting mischief to the person. The goal of Freudian psychotherapy, then, is to help the individual strengthen the Ego so that the person can resist the enticements of the Id and the pressures of the Superego. Arguably, this internal struggle that takes place within each person is similarly described by the Apostle Paul. He said, “For I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate ... . For I have the desire to do what is right, but not the ability to carry it out. For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing … , Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?” (Rom. 7:15–24). In this passage, the conflicting forces of good versus evil within oneself, and the stresses that result, are comparably described. For Freud, who had rejected Christianity, and Paul, who was guided by the Holy Spirit, both were able to observe a common human dynamic. The key difference between them, however, lies in their respective attributions of causes and, more importantly, solutions to the human struggle. For Freud (and much of psychology), the solutions lie within the human self: we are our own best resources for deliverance and standards of what is ideal. For Paul, and as it should be for all believers, the redemption from our human plight and the apex of our joy comes in the very next verse: “Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord!” (Rom. 7:25a). ONLY THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE OF HIM As educators in Christian higher education, and uniquely at Cedarville University, we are charged by Peter to “make every effort to supplement [our] faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge” (2 Pet. 1:5). The Department of Psychology is committed to making our faith excellent through an education that is grounded in the Bible. Students are trained to exercise diligence and discernment when engaging the information of psychology (or any subject matter) so that they may present themselves as ambassadors for Christ in the fields of psychology, counseling, and other professions and ministries. For only “through the knowledge of Him” (2 Pet. 1:3) can psychology be properly understood and properly applied. Luke Tse is the Chair of the Department of Psychology at Cedarville University. He earned his PhD in psychology and counseling and Master of Divinity from New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. In a post-Eden existence, nonChristian scholars do not understand that this present reality is, at best, a vague glimpse of the infinite reality of God. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and knowledge of the Holy One is understanding. (Proverbs 9:10, ESV) 17

MY STORY In this magazine so far, you’ve read about the current issues and struggles facing our graduates in a postChristian culture. Psychology, education, languages, and politics are difficult fields with a weighty task. Now, you will hear from a few of our graduates themselves. Jake Johnson ’21, a political science graduate, now works on Capitol Hill — interfacing with culture’s biggest questions every day. Heidie (Raine) Senseman ’23 graduated with a degree in English and shares her story from a literary arts perspective. Andrew ’22 and Brooke (Bailey) Reinhard ’22 are in the classroom, teaching and caring for some of the youngest members of our society. These are their stories. 18

When most people think of politics, especially in Christian circles, the words that often come to mind are corruption, division, and darkness. Despite what the 24-hour news cycle may lead you to believe, however, politics is a profession that provides vast opportunities for living out the Gospel. I’m very grateful to Cedarville for teaching me the importance of Christian engagement in politics and for facilitating my own entrance into the career field. Through Cedarville’s D.C. Semester, I spent the fall of my junior year completing a political internship and learning about how our nation’s government works. It was during that semester that I witnessed faithful, Bible-believing Christians working in politics and applying their biblical worldview to their work, day after day. I decided that semester that I wanted to do the same. After graduating, I returned to Washington, D.C., and began working in the United States Senate, where I’ve worked for the past several years. During my time in politics, I’ve learned the importance of the small, ordinary practices that keep me rooted in Christ and faithful in living out the Gospel in my workplace. The rhythms of reading my Bible, spending time in prayer, having conversations with my wife about what God is teaching us, and being plugged in to our local church have kept me grounded and have been incredible sources of encouragement and spiritual growth. Despite the turbulence that may accompany politics at times, those practices remind me that my identity is not primarily in my political party affiliation, my job title, or the outcome of an election. My identity is in Christ. As surprising as it may seem, I’m also not the only one in Washington, D.C., who has that perspective. I’m incredibly grateful that D.C. and the surrounding areas of Virginia and Maryland are home to healthy, Gospelpreaching churches that are equipping the saints to do the work of the ministry and building up the body of Christ. These churches are full of Christians who want to love their neighbors as themselves, evangelize the lost, and follow the Lord faithfully. These brothers and sisters have been such a great example to my wife and me over the past several years, and their presence in and near D.C. is so important. Our country is better for it. While God may not call all of us into careers in politics, He calls all of us to be faithful with what He has entrusted to each of us. At the end of our lives, it won’t matter what career we chose or how much influence we obtained. Those aren’t the measures of success. It will only matter whether we hear the words, “Well done, good and faithful servant.” Having that as our ultimate goal is how we remain steadfast in the Lord no matter the difficulty of our individual professions. We must keep our eyes fixed on Jesus and ask Him for strength as we run the race and keep the faith. Jake Johnson ’21 is a Junior Legislative Assistant in the United States Senate. While God may not call all of us into careers in politics, He calls all of us to be faithful with what He has entrusted to each of us. 19